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Behaviorism

Ethology (of English. Behavior = behavior, behavior). Behaviorism is the suggestion of the American philosopher William James (t 1910) and his doctrine of “pragmatism” back. It was developed substantially by the American psychologist John B. Watson, (1914). The doctrine comes into contact with the reflex research, as they presented, particularly the Russians Ivan P. Pavlov and spondylitis. Subsequent developments were strongly influenced by the animal psychology, how to operate around the American BF Skinner and the German Konrad Lorenz them. In the United States today is dominated by a view in the mix of behaviorism ideas with elements of depth psychology. In its original form can apply behaviorism only the direct observation of measurable behavior. Any interpretation or explanation, he rejects as unscientific. This eliminates the introspection, the self-inquiry, which is one of the foundations of any understanding psychology. While the introspection of both the risk that one succumbs to self-deceptions, and brings with it the temptation that one other measure to very much to his own standards, offers its opposition to the advantage that the hardships and embarrassments of the “Know thyself” escapes . Behaviorism is as it were, with the motto: “What’s in there, anyone what is going on.” Freud has accused him that he “in his naivete, boasts of having eliminated the psychological problem at all.” Behaviorism summarizes the behavior as a result of the interaction of stimulus (stimulus) and response (‘response’ = reply to). The effect of such an sexual stimulation is measured by the physical responses (acceleration of the pulse, warm the skin, etc.) and its individual significance, about their past experiences, is not considered. All knowledge is expected to leave by repetition under similar conditions, ie by controlled experiments confirm again and again. The coinage of behavior is seen as a learning process, the aim of the adjustment (adjustement) of the individual to its environment. Behavioral problems will be fixed by a relearning. Thus it is clear to one in the behavioral treatment of mental diseases roles oriented games, which one better adapted behavior should be practiced slowly. Inappropriate behavior will be punished “, such as haunting portrayal of their terrible consequences, or even triggered by electrical shocks. “Correct” behavior is rewarded with recognition and triggering of well-being “. The sensations that may be associated with one or the other behavior are covered by this kind of drill. In truth, the behavioral therapy works well with a psychological process: it threatens the isolation, the withdrawal of love, and attracts visitors with its admission to the community, the Liebeserweis. This therapy often leads to faster healing than the psychoanalytic cure, but it is actually only the symptoms. Behavioural research has made many public appearances in the human life of our time deliberately forceful than the psychology of understanding could, indeed must always proceed from the individual experiences and developed in the sum of its overarching theories. As a result of behavioral research can look at the Kinsey Reports, which made the sexual behavior statistically manageable. About Sexualempfinden they could say nothing. Here, too, they are a prime example of behaviorism and its Grenzen.Von JB Watson in 1913 founded the school psychology, particularly in the United States gained great influence. It requires introspection (description and analysis of observable only intrapsychic processes) give as unscientific and exclusively with the measurement of behavior (look especially in the animal experiment). During the review is to assess the scientific psychology of behaviorism high, other aspects of behaviorism have since been abandoned. Intrapsychic processes can, for example, by recording of verbal behavior and expression to hold with sufficient objectivity. Watson’s demands for an extreme “Molekularismus” (only conditional reflexes are recognized as components of behavior) have already left in the “molar” purposeful behavior behaviorism inclusive of EC Tolman. The currently most successful school of behaviorism is BF Skinner, a simple theory (the behavior is controlled by positive and negative stimuli and can also be altered by the scheduled change), and a very successful experimental technique with amazing dressage successes in various animal species and numerous applications connected in education and psychotherapy. Scientific opponents of behaviorism, in addition to other Gestalt psychology, which challenges the Molekularismus, and psychoanalysis, an investigation of human behavior without regard to dreams, fantasies and unconscious processes considers to be incomplete.




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